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Thursday, May 28, 2009

中国"端午节"PK韩国“端午祭”让谁觉醒!

 

中国"端午节"PK韩国"端午祭"让谁觉醒!

[6947] (2009-05-28)

  中国历史,分久必合,合久必分。历朝历代,无不如此。相比之下"中国端午节",犹如浩瀚苍凉的一叶孤舟,"中国结"距今只能看成"大中华"代名词了。形式重于内容,这是目前一些政府官员通病,更是亟待需要解决的顽症。

  一年复一年,今年,打糯米蒸粽子、扯艾叶悬大门、买雄黄泡药酒、拜祖坟清杂草,在屈原故里的湖北,人们正在为一年中最重要的节日之一——端午节做着准备。

  继4年前韩国"江陵端午祭"被联合国教科文组织宣布为"人类口头和非物质遗产代表作"后,中国已启动"端午节"申报世界非遗程序。

  湖北省非遗保护中心副主任朱林飞介绍,本次申报的遗产名称为"中国端午节",由湖北秭归县的"屈原故里端午习俗"、黄石市的"西塞神舟会"及湖南汩罗市的"汨罗江畔端午习俗"、江苏苏州市的"苏州端午习俗"四部分内容组成,申报材料由三省联合"打包"。去年10月,受文化部委托,湖北省代表中国向联合国教科文组织递交了申报表和相关材料。据悉,以上三省四地的"端午习俗",已于2006年公布为首批国家级非物质文化遗产名录。

  端午节迄今已有2500余年历史,它由驱毒避邪的节令习俗衍生出各地丰富多彩的祭祀、游艺、保健等民间活动,主要有祭祀屈原、纪念伍子胥、插艾蒿、挂菖蒲、吃粽子、龙舟竞渡等,各地活动略有不同,尤以湖北省秭归县、黄石市更具典型性。这也是为什么"端午申遗"工作以湖北为主体的原因。

  韩国申报"端午祭"的文本中,第一句话是"端午节原本是中国的节日,传到韩国已经有1500多年了"。有人担心我们申报端午节在后,其成功的可能性"会不会大打折扣"?

  也有专家指出,这是一个误区。韩国的"江陵端午祭"是从酿制神酒开始,民俗活动包括官奴假面戏、农乐竞赛、鹤山奥道戴歌谣、拔河、摔跤、荡秋千、汉诗创作比赛、射箭、投壶等,多为民众娱乐活动;而中国端午节主要是以纪念伟大诗人屈原为主,民俗活动有吃粽子,赛龙舟,挂菖蒲、艾叶,薰苍术、白芷,喝雄黄酒,儿童戴荷包、五毒兜兜等,意在驱毒辟邪。韩国的"江陵端午祭"有着一套完整的、与中国端午节既有关联性又有差异性的民俗活动。而且"人类口头遗产和非物质遗产代表作"具有"共享性",比如联合国教科文组织就曾先后批准了"伊拉克木卡姆"和"阿塞拜疆木卡姆"为非物质文化遗产,前年中国申报的"新疆木卡姆"也再次得到了批准。

  从历史角度上看,中国"端午节"同韩国"端午祭"是一回事情。根本没有形式和内容上的任何区别。我们现在来争执"端午节"所属问题,就凸显的非常滑稽。

  据史料记载:殷纣辛三十年(周武王十六年,公元前1046年),纣辛子受为武王姬发所灭,国亡。《史记·宋微子世家》:"箕子者,纣亲戚也。""於是武王乃封箕子於朝鲜,而不臣也。其後箕子朝周。"箕子姓子。"司马彪曰'箕子名胥馀'。"(《史记集解》)朝鲜半岛第一个政权出现。但它属于武王姬发所封诸侯国,地位与鲁、齐、晋、秦、楚、宋、卫、陈、蔡、曹、郑、燕等相同。且由中原人创建。

  到清光绪二十一年,公元1895年,清日签订《马关条约》。其第一款曰:"中国认明朝鲜国确为完全无缺之独立自主国,故凡有亏损其独立自主体制,即如该国向中国所修贡献典礼等,嗣后全行废决。"清与朝鲜的宗主国、藩属国关系终止。公元1897年,高宗李熙称帝,更号"大韩帝国",以图中兴。公元1904年,《韩日议定书》、《韩日协约》签订,殖民化进程加快。韩国光武九年(日本明治三十八年,1905年),《日韩保护协约》签订。公元1907年),签第二、第三份《韩日协约》。日本设统监府于汉城。高宗李熙为统监伊藤博文所逼,退位。太子李坧即位,是为纯宗。公元1910),签《日韩合并条约》。李坧退位,国亡。其地并入日本。

  1919年,李熙暴卒。孙秉熙称"朝鲜民国'都领于汉城,推李承晚为大统领。孙秉熙去朝鲜民国都领号。中华民国十四年,1925年,朴殷植、李相龙相继任临时政府国务领。,中华民国十五年,1926年,崔昌植任临时政府代理国务领。李坧卒。旋有洪震、金九相继任临时政府国务领。中华民国十六年,1927年,李东宁任临时政府主席。中华民国二十一年,1932年),宋秉祚、曹成焕、金奎植、李承晚、尹琦燮、崔东旿、车利锡、申翼熙任临时政府国务委员。中华民国二十二年,1933年,梁起铎、宋秉祚、赵素昂、曹成焕、金奎植、尹琦燮、柳东说、崔东旿、车利锡、成周实、金澈继任临时政府国务委员。中华民国二十四年,1935年,李东宁复任临时政府主席。中华民国二十九年,1940年,金九任国务委员会主席。中华民国三十 二年,1943年,苏联人民委员会主席约瑟夫·维萨里昂诺维奇·斯大林表示,朝鲜应该独立。中国国民政府主席兼行政院长蒋中正、美国总统富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福、英国内阁首相温斯顿·伦纳德·斯宾塞·丘吉尔爵士发表《开罗宣言》称:"我三大同盟国轸念朝鲜人民所受之奴隶待遇,决定在适当期间,使朝鲜自由独立。"

  回过头来讲,当韩国人把"端午节"作为自己国粹的时候,我心里曾经有过一丝凉意、一丝坦荡、一丝欣慰。至少,作为中华民族大家庭中的一员,他们没有忘本。没有忘记自己的根在中国。所以,我们为什么不可以让中国历史文化遗产,在各自国度上发扬光大呢?简单推理,其结论无与伦比。与其说是一个迷,到不如说是一个永远都解不开的"中国结"!

  黄晨灏

《联合早报网》

Wednesday, May 27, 2009

New York Times: U.N. Names 22 New Biosphere Reserves

 
 
MAY 26, 2009, 1:25 PM

U.N. Names 22 New Biosphere Reserves

© JEJU All rights reserved Mount Myohyang, in North Korea, is one of 22 special spots added to the World Network of Biosphere Reserves by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

A new batch of special spots where humans are interacting with the rest of nature in sustainable ways have been named by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The 22 new biosphere reserves include a legend-laced mountain in North Korea and a fairly populous region of towns and surrounding green space in southern Germany — the most urbanized such reserve so far.

Worldwide there are now 533 biosphere reserves in 107 countries. The designation has no force of law, but is aimed at building and promoting a network of places where people are attempting to mesh human activity with biological and scenic assets. If you've been to one of the places on the list, weigh in below with your reactions. What other places have you visited or lived in that have these qualities? A photo gallery of the new reserves is online. Here's the U.N.'s list and description:


Lagunas de Montebello, Mexico
, is set in a hydrological region of high biological diversity. Its location - in the area that connects the Highland region of Chiapas and the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, which corresponds to the central massif - makes it particularly important. The karst landscape and more than 50 lagoons of varying sizes give the area its scenic beauty. The site is critically important for water harvesting and climate regulation. Local communities are involved in the management of the site's ecological resources. They practice a range of agricultural activities increasingly focusing on practices compatible with conservation function. For example the traditional coffee production has shifted to organic production with organic conversion of the grain which, together with reforestation and tourism activities have emerged as alternatives which support the sustainable development of the area.

Fuerteventura, Spain
, is the second biggest island of the Canaries archipelago, close to the West African Coast. It includes a wide range of ecosystems from desert or semi-desert areas to coastal and marine habitats. While the island is characterized by a rich diversity of marine species, including dolphins and cachalots, as well as marine turtles that reproduce on its beaches, the biosphere reserve also represents one of the world's major geopalentological observatories. Development of sustainable ecotourism practices is the major focus of the population living on the island. The island is also investing in the increase of its renewable energy capacity, mainly through wind-based and solar energy production and is representing itself as one of the models for the implementation of the European Union's Directive on Renewable Energy.

Flores Island, Portugal
, part of the western group of the Azores archipelago, represents the surface part of a seamount close to the Mid Atlantic Rift. It was created by volcanic activity which started less than 10 million years ago. The biosphere reserve includes the whole emerged area of Flores Island and some adjacent marine areas with significant landscape, geological, environmental and cultural assets. High cliffs dominate most of the coastline, which is dotted with islets. The area supports traditional fishing and attracts valuable tourism, specifically for diving, whale and dolphin watching and shore walking.

Delta del Orinoco, Venezuela
, is characterized by great biological diversity in its terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, home to more than 2,000 plant species and a wide array of land and water fauna. The biosphere reserve's biodiversity is complemented by the cultural wealth of the Warao people. Promoting productive activities within the site creates opportunities to strengthen the Warao communities, secure their settlements and improve their living conditions.

Mount Myohyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea
, is a sacred site as, according to legend, it was the home of King Tangun, forefather of the Korean people. The scenic mountainous area rises nearly 2,000 metres above sea level. Its spectacular rocks and cliffs provide a habitat for 30 endemic plant species; 16 plant species that are globally threatened and 12 animal species that are also endangered. A wide variety of medicinal herbs also grows in the site.

Shinan Dadohae, Republic of Korea
, comprises an island archipelago in the southwest of the country. It includes terrestrial and marine areas as well as large tidal flats, which are home to a great diversity of species and serve as resting places for rare migratory birds. Traditional forms of fishing (e.g. hand-fishing) and salt production are still practiced in this area.

Great Sandy, Australia
, a terrestrial, coastal, marine area, features the largest rainforest stand on sand in the world. It includes the natural site of Fraser Island with its freshwater dune lakes, which was inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1992. The local community Burnett Mary Regional Group for Nature Resources Management has promoted the designation of the area as a biosphere reserve fostering ecotourism and niche organic agriculture.

Nokrek, India
, is a biological hotspot in the state of Meghalaya featuring undisturbed natural ecosystems and landscapes. Besides harbouring elephants, tigers, leopards and hollock gibbons, the area is also noted for its wild varieties of citrus fruit which may come to serve as a genepool for commercially produced citrus.

Pachmarhi, India, is located in the heart of India, in Madya Pradesh State, and includes tiger and other wildlife reserves. At the interface of several types of forest - tropical, moist and dry as well as sub-tropical hill forests - the area is considered a botanist's paradise. Through their social and cultural traditions, local tribes contribute to conservation of the forest while drawing on a variety of resources for nutrition, agriculture and income generation.

Similipal, India, is a tiger reserve in the eastern Indian state of Orissa, which used to be the hunting ground of the Maharajah of Mayurbhanj. This tropical environment abounds with tigers, elephants, panthers, deer and numerous plant species, making it a living laboratory for environmental scientists. The area's tribal inhabitants depend on agriculture, hunting and collection of forest products for their livelihoods but additional sources of income are badly needed to alleviate their poverty.

Giam Siak Kecil – Bukit Batu, Indonesia
, is a peatland area in Sumatra featuring sustainable timber production and two wildlife reserves, which are home to the Sumatran tiger, elephant, tapir, and sun bear. Research activities in the biosphere include the monitoring of flagship species and in-depth study on peatland ecology. Initial studies indicate good potential for sustainable economic development using flora and fauna for the inhabitants' economic welfare. The site is also an interesting experimental area regarding carbon dioxide (CO2) in the context of carbon trade mechanisms.

Mui Ca Mau, Viet Nam
, on the southern tip of the country, demonstrates ecological succession systems on new alluvial lands. Its conservation value is further marked by its role as the boundary between mangrove and Melaleuca forests, and as a reproduction and breeding area of marine species. Plans for the sustainable development of the site focus on ecotourism and cultural tourism to showcase the inhabitants' rich heritage. Training is also planned to improve agriculture and fishing.

Jabal Moussa, Lebanon
, is located on the shoulders of the western slopes of the northern Mount Lebanon Chain facing the Mediterranean Sea to the west. It is a relatively large (6,500 ha), wild and unspoiled area protected by municipal laws that aim to conserve its ecological integrity, natural systems and species. Jabal Moussa is renowned for the unspoiled historic Adonis Valley with its ancient agricultural terraces and trails that date back to Roman times. The valley features rivers and streams, rangeland with landraces, mixed forests with oak, pine and olive groves and many economically important plant species, as well as undisturbed wildlife habitats that are home to wolves, hyenas, hyraxes, birds and reptiles.

Lajat, Syria
, is located in the southernmost point of Syria on the border with Jordan. The site, known for its extremely diverse biological richness, encompasses some of the most striking landscapes in the region. It offers significant opportunities for developing ecologically sustainable human activity, through existing rotation grazing schemes, landscape restoration and excavations, and development of the Lajat archaeological ruins. Lajat also provides educational opportunities to illustrate the importance of fauna and flora in local life and economy as well as the interdependence of cultural and biological diversity.

© Detlef Reinhard The Bliesgau region of Germany, including several bustling towns, is the most densely populated biosphere reserve in the world.

Biosphäre Bliesgau, Germany, is applying the concept of the "in-between-city" approach to link two very contrasting landscapes, densely populated and urbanized in the north in the town of St Ingbert, and sparsely populated and rural in the south. It supports extensive ongoing research on ecological changes in its urban, suburban and rural areas in the context of global climate change. The range of activities demonstrating sustainable development, including educational and environmental awareness initiatives, is a source of inspiration for the region. A special Biosphere Association has been established for the site.

Swabian Alb, Germany
, is located in the European Jura, with beech forests and extensive orchards as well as pine and spruce forest, grassland and extensive meadows. Close to Stuttgart, it covers a total area of 84,500 ha and has a population of 150,000. Programmes for sustainable development for the biosphere include agriculture and forestry, green businesses and ecotourism, as well as the promotion of local products and cottage industries and there are plans to bolster renewable energy use, notably for transportation. The biosphere includes the Münsingen Military Training Area in the Hilly Alb, an area that was closed to the public during 110 years, until 2005. It remained undisturbed; retaining the characteristics of 18th and 19th century cultural landscapes and is one of the largest noise-free areas in Baden-Württemberg.

Altaisky, Russian Federation
, is located in the North-Eastern and Eastern Altaï along major mountain ranges. Noteworthy for its biodiversity and cultural heritage, it covers 3,532,234 ha and is home to 15,000 inhabitants. The core area is a part of the Golden Mountains of the natural UNESCO World Heritage site of Altaï. The site, which cooperates with Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina Biosphere Reserve and the Khakassky national reserve, is important for tourism, including the development of green tourism. Established as a reserve in 1932, it is among the areas of the world least affected by human intervention and has rich flora and fauna. Indigenous populations living in the biosphere's transitional area include Tubalars, Chelkants, Telengits, Kumandins, Telengits, Kumandins, and Teleuts.

Vhembe, South Africa, is world renowned for its rich cultural and biological diversity. It includes northern part of the Kruger National Park, Makuleke Wetlands Ramsar Site, the Soutpansberg and Blouberg bio-diversity hot spots, as well as the Mapungube Cultural Landscape World Heritage Site and the Makgabeng Plateau with more than 1000 rock art sites. Human activities in the site are predominately agricultural, including production of subtropical fruits and vegetables, cattle and game farming and hunting. The Venda, Shangaan and Sepedi people, who are the main population group in the area, have a rich history of traditional indigenous knowledge ranging from wood carving and drum making to traditional healing.

Desnianskyi, Ukraine
, is located in Eastern Polesie, along the Desna River. With a total surface of 58,000 ha, the site covers a mosaic of ecosystems, including forests, rivers, lakes, flood plains, bogs. It is an important site for environmental research, including monitoring of rare species such as bears and lynx. The main human activities focus on agriculture, forestry, fishery and sport hunting. Main sustainable development activities include organic agriculture and green tourism on the Desna river as well educational activities developed in the context of the 'Desnianski Zori"ecological camp for schoolchildren. Tranfrontier sustainable tourism is being developed in collaboration with the Russian Federation with efforts to establish a Transboundary Biosphere Reserve between the two countries.

Geres /Xures, is a transboundary biosphere reserve situated between Portugal and Spain and established on the basis of the biogeographical continuity of the Sierras Galaico-Miñotas and associated valleys shared by both countries. The importance of the site from an ecological standpoint is due to the richness of forest and peatland ecosystems and a high level of endemic species which had developed under both oceanic and Mediterranean climatic influences. With local communities forming an integral part of the regional landscape, sustainable development centres have been established in the biosphere reserve to support municipalities in their efforts to strengthen the environmental sustainability criteria in local development. With a joint management plan both countries will be able to benefit from each other's experience and cooperate in the sustainable management of ecosystems and related services of shared characteristics for the benefits of local communities.

Cu Lao Cham – Hoi An, Vietnam, is a coastal/island/marine site in the central part of the country, which is particularly known for its marine species such as corals, molluscs, crustaceans and seaweed. The biosphere reserve also contains Hoi An, a cultural world heritage site, which is an ancient trading port evidencing the fusion of Vietnamese and European cultures. The linking of cultural assets and natural values in terms of biodiversity, Cu Lao Cham – Hoi An is well poised in promoting sustainable ecotourism.

Tasik Chini, Malaysia, is the country's first site as a UNESCO designated biosphere reserve. Located in the southern part of the Malaysian peninsula, the site is the water catchment area of Tasik Chini Lake situated in the centre of the biosphere reserve. The lake is a sanctuary for many endemic freshwater species on which intensive research and monitoring is carried out by various research institutions. Handicraft production (such as textiles) around the lake and its tributary rivers are seen to have great development potential for the larger area.

 

Saturday, May 23, 2009

For Nicaraguans, New Currency Is a Hot Potato

For Nicaraguans, New Currency Is a Hot Potato

In a country accustomed to surprises from its government, Nicaraguans received another curiosity on May 15 when they awoke to find that the Central Bank, moving in the night as stealthily as the Tooth Fairy, had snuck a new legal tender into their economy while the markets were sound asleep...

Marymount View from Marymount Station


Get out of Marymount Station (Circle Line) from Exit A. Face north and walk 400 meters. You should walk pass an overhead bridge, then Shunfu Road followed by a second overhead bridge. Cross the second bridge and Marymount View is there... at the junction of Marymount Road and Pemimpin Drive. Just opposite Shunfu Estate.


How to get here from other parts of Singapore (thanks to Garry): http://gothere.sg/directions#Marymount%20View,%20Pemimpin%20Drive:

Lorong Chuan MRT: Island of Singapore by Yoma & A Does of Light

Excellent piece!